Institutions exist because some people are rejected from ordinary communities; they are not offered the support they need to be a valued citizen. Often people then become sucked into a vicious cycle where exclusion leads to anger, which leads to further exclusion. Moreover, as people are removed from community life this state of exclusion begins to seem normal or even appropriate. The system undermines people's ability to appear as valued and valuable citizens.
The publisher is the Centre for Welfare Reform.
Graphic on Institutional Spiral © Simon Duffy 2017
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