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Style Guide

We welcome contributions from anyone who believes that everyone is equal and that diversity is good. You can send us your contributions directly or you may prefer to talk to us in advance.


Please try to follow the following style guidelines:

  • In general we prefer numbers not words, especially for larger numbers e.g. there were 52 varieties of beans.
  • Use -ise in preference to -ize.
  • Avoid the excessive use of hyphens e.g. healthcare, unless it's an invented work like self-directed.
  • Use no more than 3 heading levels (ideally less).
  • Provide a summary at the beginning of longer pieces.
  • Only use capitals for proper names. The only exception is when you are naming and defining a concept (e.g. Individual Budget); but then this must be consistently capitalised throughout.
  • Headings should only be capitalised on the first letter - unless a proper name is included
  • Figures (or captions) should also only be capitalised on the first letter.
  • Only the Main Title will be fully capitalised and any sub-title will be in block capitals
  • When quoting authors, alive or dead, use the present tense to describe what someone thinks or says - unless the context demands a past tense.
  • Punctuation inside quote marks even when artificial (i.e. the US convention) - e.g. Simon said “Put your hands in the air,” before he left the building.
  • The name of publications, legislation, projects or brands cited in a text should be in italics; however organisations, departments or other formal bodies should not be in italics - in other words the italics signals that this is a name of something. (This also means that such titles do not require quotations marks. e.g. The Spirit Level, not 'The Spirit Level')
  • Provide any artwork separately from the text, at the highest resolution possible or as a vector graphic.
  • Please only use one space after a period and avoid other excessive uses of the space bar, the return key or clip art.
  • We do not use footnotes and ideally try to avoid endnotes. However if endnotes are essential then please mark number at the end of the relevant sentence - not midway. e.g. The UK Government breached the human rights of disabled people.1
  • If using end notes then number every note in sequence. If you are referring back to any earlier reference do not simply repeat the earlier number. You must use a new number and then in the note either: ibid (if you are refering back to the note immediately above or Name and Nor Number e.g. O'Brien (n 6)
  • Only use double quotes (") for real quotations of people. Only use single quotes (') for expressions. Unless essential to the flow of the paragraph, quotations will be placed in a paragraph of their own with a clear citation.
  • Try to avoid the use of the rather ugly and/or. Unless there is a real danger of ambiguity or confusion it can be assumed that 'or' includes 'and' (ie. use the logicians 'or').


We use Harvard Referencing, but with punctuation kept to a minimum. Here are examples of the different uses:

  • Duffy S (2010) Personalisation in Mental Health. Sheffield: Centre for Welfare Reform
  • Duffy S & Hyde C (2011) Women at the Centre. Sheffield: Centre for Welfare Reform
  • Cowen A, Murray P & Duffy S (2011) Personalised Transition: a collaborative approach to funding individual budgets for young disabled people with complex needs leaving school. JOURNAL OF INTEGRATED CARE, Vol. 19 Iss: 2, pp. 30-36 doi: 10.5042/jic.2011.0158
  • Lewis CS (1943) The Abolition of Man. Oxford: Oxford University Press
  • Duffy S (2013a) Welfare Myth Three - The Poor Don't Pay Taxes Available from: http://www. huffingtonpost.co.uk/dr-simon-duffy/welfare-myth-poor-taxes_b_3053882.html [Accessed 30/08/14].
  • UNCRPD (2006) United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
  • Hinsliff G (2019) In praise of shame: how Trump and Johnson show we need it more than ever. The Guardian: 2 July 2019
  • The Health and Social Care Act (2012) United Kingdom

Note: Title of book should be capitalised by the normal Upper Case convention - regardless of style in original publication. Subtitles should be lower case.

Editor becomes (ed) and editors (eds)

'Et al' is without a stop

Citations of chapter from books or journals should include page numbers as follows:

Cowen A, Murray P & Duffy S (2011) Personalised Transition: a collaborative approach to funding individual budgets for young disabled people with complex needs leaving school. JOURNAL OF INTEGRATED CARE, Vol. 19 Iss: 2, pp. 30-36

In text citations - In text citations should be bracketed, with author's surname and year e.g. (Duffy, 2010).

Ideally larger quotes will be followed by a full citation on a separate line  e.g. Duffy S (2010) Personalisation in Mental Health. p. 26

In your references list, either provide the surnames and initials of all authors or use et al after the first author's name.

Publishing process

Guidelines for contributors:

  • Text should be provided in Word, Pages or RTF.
  • DTP will only begin once text has been agreed
  • Images should NOT be embedded in document but provided separately
  • High quality images ideally
  • Statistics should ideally be provided either as raw data or in a Scaleable Vector Graphic form (i.e. not just an image grab from Excel)

If in doubt please talk to us in advance.

Contents page

Contents page typically we will be restricted to:

  • Foreword (if any) - this is by a different person to author
  • Preface (if any) - this would be by the author
  • Summary
  • Section headings (if any)
  • Chapter heading (Level 1 only)
  • Bibliography